Parrotfish species identification guide

Parrotfish, a key to coral reef survival

Scaridae (parrotfish) are emblematic to coral reefs. About 90 species populate tropical and subtropical areas on the Planet. They are characterized by a long body and a mouth that is more a “beak” strong enough to break coral. Parrotfish play a crucial part in the reef ecosystem: they are herbivorous and ceaselessly graze algae and polyps on the seabed, hence cleaning the reef up and helping it regenerate. The smallest adult parrotfish are about 30 cm long when the biggest (the impressive green humphead parrotfish) can be more than 1m long. Male parrotfish are generally a lot bigger and more colored than the females. Some are amongst the brightest tropical fish with their turquoise coat. Those creatures are easy to observe with basic snorkel gear as they abound in numerous spots, even in shallow water.

A flamboyant and easy-to-spot fish

Parrotfish are sometimes hard to distinguish between them since dozens of species show very similar colors. The Indo-Pacific area hosts the best diversity of species, some of them having very large distribution areas. For example, the blue-barred parrotfish abounds in shallow waters from Eastern Africa to the Galápagos Islands. 14 parrotfish species can be observed in the Caribbean, including the stoplight parrotfish, most common in lagoons, or the much rarer midnight parrotfish with its dark blue scales. The Mediterranean parrotfish notably lives along the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean basin, but it remains hard to spot when snorkeling.

Caribbean & Western Atlantic parrotfish

Indian & Pacific Oceans parrotfish

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