White sand, turquoise blue water, and swaying coconut trees: Zanzibar archipelago, just off the African coast, is a tropical paradise. Its coastline, although overcrowded in some areas, offers good snorkeling, both from the beach and on the surrounding islets. Multicolored starfish, clownfish, butterflyfish, moray eels and surgeonfish are particularly easy to spot in the island's shallow waters.
Zanzibar archipelago is made of three main islands: Mafia, Unguja -generally called Zanzibar- and Pemba, as well as numerous islets and reefs, most of them uninhabited. The three main islands are located between 20 and 50 kilometers from the mainland. Their crystal clear waters, white-sand beaches and coral reefs make them one of the very best snorkeling destinations in Africa.
The coasts of Zanzibar, fringed by coral reefs, know important tides. This is particularly true on the eastern coast, where you may have to walk several hundred meters to be able to swim at low tide.
If you can snorkel from the shore in many locations, you’ll generally have to make do with seagrass beds and sandy areas, punctuated by more or less extensive coral patches. The underwater life is however rich, with many reef fish and fascinating critters to see.
Unguja Island, or simply Zanzibar, is the beating heart of the archipelago. It is, by far, the most visited island. The capital, Stone Town, the main international airport, as well as most of the hotels and tourist facilities are located here.
Nungwi Beach, where the reef is narrow and open to the sea, is undoubtedly one of the best shore access snorkeling spots on the island. Its sandy drop-off, punctuated by coral patches, allows for nice explorations. Along the east coast, you can snorkel from the shore in Pingwe Beach, at the Blue Lagoon (from the shore or by boat), at Paje Beach, or at Jambiani Beach.
In the shallows, you will discover a great diversity of sea stars and sea urchins, clownfish, lionfish, as well as small iconic species such as the robust ghost pipefish, the roundbelly cowfish, the jointed razorfish, the porcelain crab or the banded cleaner shrimp.
If snorkeling from the beach offers nice sightings, it is around the islets and reefs that emerge along the coast that the most popular snorkeling spots are found.
The most famous snorkeling spot on the island is Mnemba Island, a coral islet located northwest of Zanzibar. Surrounded by a ring of white sand, it offers an idyllic setting and incredible underwater visibility. While hundreds of sergeant majors gather around the boats, the reef is the perfect place to spot snappers, surgeonfish, clownfish, moray eels, as well as many other fish species.
Even if Mnemba is overcrowded (every morning, dozens of boats converge on the island and drop off snorkelers on the reef), this spot remains spectacular and worth a visit. If you want to stay here and enjoy the reef for hours and hours, there is only one option: book a night at the sumptuous &Beyond Mnemba Island*****, the only resort on the island.
There are also many islets off Stone Town, all of which being partially surrounded by reefs. The most beautiful is Chumbe Island Coral Park, one of the main protected areas of Zanzibar. Closer to town, Prison Island (or Changuu Island), Bawe Island and Pange Island are all within a 30-minute boat ride of the old town. Chapwani Island, where the Chapwani Private Island Resort is located, is also a good option.
If you are staying in Nungwi, consider joining a boat trip to Tumbatu Island, a large island located 6km off the west coast. It is easy to find a boat to take you snorkeling there for a few dozen dollars. Most trips will take you to Mwana wa Mwana Island, an islet located at the northern tip of Tumbatu Island and separated from it only at high tide. Its coral garden is quite preserved, and many fishes can be seen there.
In Zanzibar, you will notice that many agencies offer boat trips to swim with dolphins, especially at Kizimkazi and near Mnemba Island. We do not recommend participating in these tours, as they harass the dolphins, which can’t feed and rest naturally.
The dolphins are chased and surrounded by dozens of motorboats every day without respite. Moreover, it is very hard to see them underwater: stressed, they will rush to the depths as soon as you jump into the water.
Bathed by the warm waters of the Indian Ocean, the coasts of Zanzibar are home to a rich reef life, despite intensive fishing and overcrowding. The shallow coral reefs (within swimfin’s reach) are in a very average condition, even in the protected areas. Nevertheless, you’ll find in places some beautiful soft corals, branching corals, as well as gorgonians.
On the tidal flats, where the depth rarely exceeds 3 to 6ft/1 to 2 meters, the underwater landscape is generally poor. However, a closer look reveals a fascinating underwater life: the rocks are covered with anemones, clams, sponges, small soft corals and crinoids.
All around, juvenile lionfish, shrimps, gobies, pipefish, small morays and puffers, among dozens of other species, are easy to see. On the sand, red-knobbed starfish and Pentaceraster abound in some places, and almost a dozen species of sea urchins can be found.
Among the most beautiful fish that can be seen while snorkeling in Zanzibar are the Arabian angelfish, the palette surgeonfish (aka Dory), the powder blue tang and the blackspotted rubberlip.
Zanzibar is also a great destination if you want to see clownfish, two species living in the archipelago: the twobar anemonefish and the skunk clownfish, which often share their anemone with a porcelain crab or threespot dascyllus. They can be encountered everywhere at snorkeling depths.
Zanzibar is, however, not a good destination for turtle and ray sightings, which are very rarely seen in the shallows.
The water temperature is very pleasant in Zanzibar (it is close to 86°F/30°C on average in February/March), and snorkeling can be practiced all year round in good conditions. However, the temperature drops during the winter months (72 to 75°F/22 to 24°C from July to September), which can make it useful to wear a rashguard, especially if it is windy.
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Abundant in the shallow seagrass and sandy beds, all around the island. Very common at Nungwi Beach.
Common on all reef spots. Easily spotted at Nungwi Beach.
Common on all reef spots, particularly in Mnemba Island and Nungwi Beach.
Mostly spotted at Mnemba Island, where they are seen schooling with sergeants around the boats.
Fringing coral reef with colorful fish
Level: Resort nearby
Shallow coral beds with reef fish and sea stars
Level: Free shore access
Shallow lagoon with a diversity of reef fish and invertebrates
Level: Free shore access Resort nearby
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